Most advanced Cardiac treatment now avoids a major open heart surgery as, interventional radiologists can now open blocked or narrowed blood vessels caused by peripheral arterial disease or other conditions.
The procedure starts with inserting a thin flexible tube called catheter into a major artery. Usually it’s the radial artery in the arm or the femoral artery in the thigh. The catheter is guided with the help of X-ray imaging device called as fluoroscopy, towards the structural defect in the heart. The camera at the end of the catheter sends images which helps to visualise the exact nature of the problem for better decision making. Small instruments can then be passed though the hollow tube to repair the defects. Normally atherosclerosis (narrowing of arteries due to plaque formation), valve repair, septal defects (hole in the heart) etc. can be corrected through this procedure.
Some of the advantages of minimally invasive interventional cardiology are decreased pain, less risk of infection, avoidance of large scars and shorter postoperative recovery times. In many instances, patients are awake during the procedure, requiring only a local anaesthetic. Additionally, many procedures are performed on an outpatient basis, allowing patients to go home within hours of the procedure.
A majority of interventional cardiology procedures are performed in the cardiovascular (heart, veins and arteries) system. Most interventional cardiology procedures are considered to be minimally invasive because they do not require an instrument to enter the body or large incisions — most incisions are approximately 1 inch. These procedures usually involve the insertion of a catheter (hollow tube) into the femoral artery in the upper thigh. The catheter is guided toward the heart or vascular area through the use of real-time X-ray.
There are Five types of angioplasty surgeries:
1. Balloon Angioplasty – This is the most common approach to widen narrow arteries. Generally the walls of the arteries are soft and elastic. Aging causes deposition of plaque on the arterial walls making them hard. This also narrows the lumen of the artery. The amount of blood flowing through the artery reduces because of which less blood reaches the heart muscles. The heart muscles do not get oxygen and nutrients causing damage to the heart tissues. This causes heart attack as the heart is unable to function properly. In Balloon angioplasty, a catheter with a balloon at the tip is introduced through an artery and guided up to the site of blockage in the coronary artery. The balloon is then expanded which compresses the plaque on the arterial walls which widens up the artery. The balloon is then deflated and pulled back. There may be chance of occlusion again. This procedure is also known as percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.
2. Balloon Angioplasty and Stenting – This is generally advised when more than one coronary artery is occluded. The procedure is similar to balloon angioplasty. After the artery is widened using the inflated a balloon, stent or wire mesh is introduce through the catheter up to the point of occlusion. The stent is widened and left there. The balloon and catheter are pulled back. The stent prevents re-occlusion of the artery. The stent is made up inert material.
3. Rotablation – This is also known as percutaneous transluminal rotational atherectomy. A special catheter with a diamond coated tip is guided to the point of occlusion in the artery. The tip spins at a high speed which scrapes away all the plaque. The small pieces are washed away in the blood and filtered through the liver and kidney.
4. Drug eluting stents – in this the stents that are fitted in the arterial walls contain a thin layer of drug that dissolves away the plaque. The stent is inserted in the above manner.
Heart patients to benefit from dissolvable stent introduced for treatment of coronary artery disease at indiacarez.com affiliated world class hospital in India.
Doctors at indiacarez.com affiliated Hospitals are now performing angioplasty using a revolutionary device, which is made of dissolvable material and is a natural substitute for the metallic stent that is currently used to prop open the artery at the site of the blockage. Unlike a metallic stent, which remains in the body for a lifetime, the new device gets dissolved in due course – once the artery becomes normal. A metallic stent, being a foreign body, would can cause side effects sometimes. To overcome that patients have to be on lifetime medication, which in turn can cause gastro-intestinal bleeding and stroke. There would be no such side effects with the new device as it would get dissolved in the body after a year.
Local anaesthesia is used during angioplasty procedures. Only the point of entry of the catheter is numbed. The patient is awake and conscious throughout the procedure. Though the procedure is short and may take anywhere between 30 minutes to 3 hours, the pre and post-operative periods are long. As a result the patient may remain in the hospital for around 5- 9 hours. The procedure is performed in a state of art cardiac catheterization labs in hospitals that have facility to carry out traditional open heart surgeries and are well equipped to deal with emergencies during the procedure.
Mr. G. Jamilah,Tanzania
“I chose India for my treatment because of the excellent profile of its doctors and the low price of the procedure. The IndiaCarez people were great, very prompt at returning phone calls. It took me 4 to 5 weeks from initiation to being there at New Delhi. The hospital was great, new, clean, fantastic patient care. They also have tight security at the hospital; you are picked up and dropped off at the airport. I was given all my MRI’s, diagnostic test results and everything pertaining to my procedure to take home. If you take someone with you they stay in the same hospital room with you. I went alone but my friend’s husband was there with her, but I did not feel alone. Everone at hospital speaks English and cares for patients. I did some local sightseeing and souvenir shopping while I stayed at the hotel for a few days after discharge from the hospital”.
Mr G. Jamilah’s wife wrote to us as below :-
I can say I see a lot of changes since he returned, when we were driving home he said he could actually feel the brakes, he can stand down in his workshop hours longer without having to sit down or take breaks, he can get up a lot easier in the mornings, he has had 1 nap in the 5 weeks he has been back when he usually has to have at least two, of at least 3 hour duration, a week, before he left all I heard all day was I’m so tired, I’m done, 10 times a day, I might hear it once a week now. It was worth every penny. Go for it.
G. Jamilah, Angioplasty From Tanzania
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